MANILA, Philippines – BILANG bahagi ng komprehensibong “peace initiatives” ng administrasyon, pinagkalooban ni Pangulong Ferdinand R. Marcos Jr. ang mga rebeldeng grupo ng amnestiya para hikayatin ang mga ito na magbalik-loob sa pamahalaan.
Sa pamamagitan ng Executive Order (EO) No. 47, nilagdaan ni Executive Secretary Lucas P. Bersamin nito lamang Nobyembre 22, 2023, inamiyendahan nito ang Executive Order No. 125, series of 2021, o ang Creation of the National Amnesty Commission (NAC).
Sa pagpapalabas ng kautusan, sinabi ng Pangulo na may pangangailangan na susugan at i-update ang mga tungkulin at ginagawa ng National Amnesty Commission para sa pagpo-proseso ng aplikasyon para sa amnestiya sa ilalim ng bagong proklamasyon.
“There is hereby created the National Amnesty Commission, hereinafter referred to as the Commission, which shall be primarily tasked with receiving and processing applications for amnesty and determining whether the applicants are entitled to amnesty under Proclamation Nos. 403, 404, 405 and 406,” ang mababasa sa EO.
“The Commission created under EO No. 125 shall continue to exist and will be dissolved upon completion of its mandate or as may be determined by the President,” nakasaad pa rin sa EO.
Sa ilalim ng Proclamation No. 403, pinagkalooban ng Pangulo ng amnestiya ang mga miyembro ng Rebolusyonaryong Partido ng Manggagawa ng Pilipinas/Revolutionary Proletarian Army/Alex Boncayao Brigade (RPMP-RPA-ABB) na nakagawa ng krimen na may kaparusahan sa ilalim ng Revised Penal Code and special penal laws, lalo na iyong nakagawa ng krimen alinsunod sa kanilang political beliefs, maging ito man ay maaaring parusahan sa ilalim ng Revised Penal Code o special penal laws.
Gayunman, hindi naman sakop ng proklamasyn ang “kidnap for ransom, massacre, rape, terrorism, crimes committed against chastity as defined in the Revised Penal Code, crimes committed for personal ends, violation of Republic Act (RA) No. 9165, or the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002, grave violations of the Geneva Convention of 1949, and genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, torture, enforced disappearances, at iba pang mahalay na paglabag sa karapatang-pantao.”
Sa kabilang dako, nagpalabas din ang Pangulo ng Proclamation No. 404 na nagkakaloob ng amnestiya sa mga dating miyembro ng Communist Party of the Philippines-New People’s Army-National Democratic Front (CPP-NPA-NDF) na nakagawa ng krimen na may kaparusahan sa ilalim ng Revised Penal Code and Special Penal laws sa pagsusulong ng kanilang political beliefs.
Nakasaad dito na “amnesty is granted to former CPP-NPA-NDF members, or their front organizations that committed crimes whether punishable under the Revised Penal Code or special penal laws, including but not limited to rebellion or insurrection; conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion or insurrection; disloyalty of public officers or employees; inciting to rebellion or insurrection; sedition; conspiracy to commit sedition; and inciting to sedition.”
“Other offenses also include illegal assembly; illegal association; direct assault; indirect assault; resistance and disobedience to a person in authority or the agents of such person; tumults and other disturbances of public order; unlawful use of means of publication and unlawful utterances; alarms and scandals; illegal possession of firearms, ammunition or explosives, provided that these crimes or offense were committed in furtherance of, incident to, or in connection with the crimes of rebellion or insurrection.”
Sakop din nito ang mga “charged, detained or convicted of common crimes but who can establish by substantial evidence that they have actually committed said crimes in pursuit of political beliefs.”
Ang amnestiya na ipinagkaloob sa ilalim ng proklamasyon ay hindi naman sumasakop sa ‘kidnap for ransom, massacre, rape, terrorism, crimes committed against chastity as defined in the Revised Penal Code, violation of RA No. 9165, otherwise known as the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002, grave violations of the Geneva Convention of 1949, and genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, torture, enforced disappearances, and other gross violations of human rights.”
Samantala, nagpalabas naman ang Pangulo ng Proclamation No. 405 nagkakaloob ng amnestiya sa mga miyembro ng Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) at Proclamation No. 406 para naman sa Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), na nakagawa ng krimen na may kaparusahan sa ilalim ng Revised Penal Code at Special Penal Laws para isulong sa politikal ang kanilang paniniwala.
“Any member of the MILF and MNLF who has committed any act or omission in pursuit of political belief, referred to in Section 1, including those detained, charged, or convicted for such acts or omissions, may file an application for amnesty; provided that the crime for which amnesty may be granted must have been committed prior to the issuance of the Proclamation,” ayon sa Malakanyang. Kris Jose